【行业新闻】医疗废水高污染,我国仪器助力提高废水回用率-西安华恒变送器厂家
【行业新闻】医疗废水高污染,我国仪器助力提高废水回用率
信息来源: 华恒 | [ 2019-04-09 ] 点击量: 419

   水污染指的是有害化学物质造成水的使用价值降低或者是丧失,并变成污染环境的水。据世界权威机构调查,在发展中国家,各类疾病有80%是因为饮用了不卫生的水而传播的,每年因饮用不卫生水至少造成全球2000万人死亡,因此,水污染被称作“世界头号杀手”。

 
  Water pollution refers to the use value of water reduced or lost by harmful chemicals and turned into water polluting the environment.According to a survey by world authorities,80%of all kinds of diseases in developing countries are spread by drinking unsanitary water,which causes at least 20 million deaths worldwide every year.Therefore,water pollution is called"the world's number one killer".
 
  水污染主要是由人类活动产生的污染物造成,它包括矿山污染源,工业污染源,农业污染源和生活污染源四大部分。医院污水虽然在生活污水中所占比例较小,但由于医院在运行过程中,不可避免地产生了具有直接或者间接感染性、毒性以及其他危害性的废水,含有病原微生物的医疗污水具有空间污染、急性传染和潜伏性传染等特征,如果不经过消毒、灭活等无害化处理,而是直接排入城市下水道,往往会造成水、土壤的污染,严重的还会引发各种疾病,导致介水传染病的暴发流行。
 
  Water pollution is mainly caused by pollutants produced by human activities.It includes four parts:mine pollution source,industrial pollution source,agricultural pollution source and living pollution source.Although the proportion of hospital sewage in domestic sewage is relatively small,it inevitably produces wastewater with direct or indirect infectivity,toxicity and other harmful effects during the operation of the hospital.Medical sewage containing pathogenic microorganisms has the characteristics of space pollution,acute infection and latent infections.If it is not treated harmlessly,such as disinfection and inactivation,it will do so.Directly discharged into urban sewers often results in water and soil pollution,and serious diseases,leading to outbreaks and epidemics of water-borne infectious diseases.
 
  今年3月,北京市水政监察大队陆续对城六区55家医疗机构开展专项执法行动。调查结果显示,有25家医疗机构存在排水水质超标的情况,另有4家医疗机构存在无证排水的情况。在水质检测中发现,此次专项检查中有医疗机构在粪大肠菌群上超标1400倍。如果食用微生物超标的食品,很容易患痢疾等肠道疾病,可能引起呕吐、腹泻等症状,危害人体健康安全。
 
  In March this year,the Beijing Water Administration Supervision Brigade launched special law enforcement actions on 55 medical institutions in six districts of the city.The results showed that 25 medical institutions had excessive drainage quality,and 4 medical institutions had undocumented drainage.In the water quality test,it was found that medical institutions exceeded 1400 times the standard in fecal coliform flora during the special inspection.If microorganisms exceed the standard of food,it is easy to suffer from intestinal diseases such as dysentery,which may cause vomiting,diarrhea and other symptoms,endangering human health and safety.
 
  由于污染所导致的缺水和事故不断发生,不仅使工厂停产、农业减产甚至绝收,还造成了不良的社会影响和较大的经济损失,严重地威胁了社会的可持续发展,威胁了人类的生存。因此,对于含有化学物质、放射性废水和病原体的医疗废水,必须经过医疗污水处理设备处理后才能排放,特别是肝炎等传染病病房排出来的污水,须经消毒后才可排放。
 
  Water shortage and accidents caused by pollution not only stop production of factories,reduce production of agriculture and even stop harvest,but also cause adverse social impact and greater economic losses,which seriously threaten the sustainable development of society and the survival of mankind.Therefore,for medical wastewater containing chemical substances,radioactive wastewater and pathogens,it must be treated by medical sewage treatment equipment before discharging,especially in infectious disease wards such as hepatitis,which can only be discharged after disinfection.
 
  对于综合医院(不带传染病房)污水处理可采用“预处理→一级强化处理→消毒”的工艺。通过混凝沉淀(过滤)去除携带病毒、病菌的颗粒物,调节池前部设置自动格栅,调节池内设提升水泵,污水经提升后进入混凝沉淀池进行混凝沉淀,沉淀池出水进入接触池进行消毒,达标排放。传染病医院(包括带传染病房的综合医院)和排入自然水体的综合医院使用曝气生物滤池+二氧化氯消毒的污水处理工艺,流程为原污水先经格栅去除漂浮物,再经沉淀池分离泥砂等颗粒物,经调节均匀后泵至BAF进行生物处理,出水经二氧化氯消毒后达标排放,反冲洗出水回流至沉淀池,沉淀分后的污水循环处理。
 
  The process of"pretreatment first-level intensified treatment disinfection"can be used for sewage treatment in general hospitals(without infectious wards).Particulates carrying viruses and pathogens are removed by coagulation sedimentation(filtration),automatic grilles are set at the front of the regulating tank,lifting pumps are set in the regulating tank,sewage is lifted into the coagulation sedimentation tank for coagulation sedimentation,and the effluent of the sedimentation tank is disinfected into the contact tank for discharge up to the standard.Infectious disease hospitals(including general hospitals with infectious wards)and general hospitals discharged into natural waters use biological aerated filter+chlorine dioxide disinfection sewage treatment process.The process is that raw sewage is first removed floating matter by grille,then particulate matter such as mud and sand is separated by sedimentation tank,and then uniformly adjusted and pumped to BAF for biological treatment.After chlorine dioxide disinfection,the effluent is discharged to the standard and backwashed.The effluent is returned to the sedimentation tank,and the sewage after precipitation is recycled.
 
  随着科学技术的进步,废水也可以是一种宝贵的资源,要大程度的利用。提高医疗废水的再生利用率,不仅可以减少污染物排放,还可以节约有限的水资源。在水资源日渐短缺以及环境污染治理日益迫切的情况下,采用先进的技术、工艺和设备将废水进行处理后再进行排放,增加循环用水次数,提高水资源重复利用率将是废水回用的发展趋势。
 
  With the progress of science and technology,wastewater can also be a valuable resource,which should be utilized to a large extent.Improving the recycling efficiency of medical wastewater can not only reduce pollutant discharge,but also save limited water resources.With the increasing shortage of water resources and the increasing urgency of environmental pollution control,the development trend of wastewater reuse will be to use advanced technology,technology and equipment to treat wastewater and discharge it,increase the number of recycled water,and improve the reuse rate of water resources.